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Mental Health is a huge issue – with more people suffering with mental health-related conditions than ever before. Here at UniEel, our site is predominantly aimed at University students. In the last few years, it has been near-impossible to escape the stories about students struggling with mental health conditions. The current state of the higher education system and related pressures – such as a competitive graduate market and mounting debt – makes students more susceptible than ever to develop a mental health condition.

 

The UniEel Get Going section has been constructed to provide users an area which provides helpful and informative articles regarding mental health. Common mental health conditions are covered – with symptoms, causes, medications and treatments all reviewed. Important contact information for external organisations can be found on the main homepage of UniEel Get Going, along with crisis information. Together, we can try and improve the mental health of many, many individuals. Thanks for stopping by.

 

For a list of our articles, consider looking at our Mental Health A to Z Here.

 

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Mental Health Statistics for Anglia Ruskin University

Statistics concerning the mental health of students at Anglia Ruskin University have been released – with the results revealing that almost 1,400 students sought counselling in the last academic year. With around 21,000 students enrolled at Anglia Ruskin, this equates to around 6% of all students accessing the counselling. As will be discussed further, demand for counselling services at Anglia Ruskin has risen enormously in recent years. The statistics discussed in this article come courtesy of a Freedom of Information request.

 

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Concerns over mental health problems continue to rise

 

In total, 1,368 students at the University accessed counselling services during the 2016-17 academic year. This was a record high for the University, and signalled a staggering 151% increase in counselling requests since the 2010/11 academic year. There was a strong leap between the 2015-16 and 2016-17 academic year’s, with the before-mentioned 1,368 rising from 1,291. Going back to 2010-11, 544 students requested counselling – the rise since then is enormous. These results are very concerning.

 

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While the specific causes for accessing counselling services weren’t disclosed, generally, Anxiety and depression are the main causes of seeking help. Self-harm, eating disorders and substance abuse are often just some of the other reasons for seeking counselling. These are difficult times to be a student – with uncertainty over the future, higher tuition fees than ever before and with the job market being at an unprecedented level of competitiveness. There is a pressure like never before on students to succeed – which can lead to these mental health problems developing or aggravating.

 

88% of users of the counselling service indicated they were satisfied with the help they received from the service. However 12% is still a large amount – representing the amount of people who weren’t satisfied with the service. It was revealed that one of the main reasons for discontent with the service was its short-term nature – with only six appointments the maximum allowance for any student. However, the online ‘Silver Cloud Cognitive Behavioural Therapy’ platform was praised.

 

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The figures suggest around 6% of students at the University have accessed counselling. This is a slightly higher level when compared to some other Universities. These revelations can be seen in a positive light – such as that it appears the stigma around mental health is disappearing – leading to more people to request help. The only concern is that many students suffer in silence. Not every student suffering from ill health uses counselling services – which should be remembered when considering these statistics. Those in need are encouraged to actively seek help.

 

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There are countless pressures facing students

 


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This is certainly a tough time to be a student. However it is encouraging to see that more people are coming forward with their mental health concerns – and that the stigma finally appears to be going away. While Universities all around the United Kingdom need to improve their current provisions for mental health, it appears that some positive steps have been taken in recent months in the battle against mental health problems. Hopefully this trend will continue. Remember you can contact the Samaritans on 116 123 – should you ever need.

 

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What is the Difference between a Graduate Job and a Graduate Scheme?

As your time at University winds down, it will soon be time to think about applying for a job for post-University. Everyone is aware how competitive the graduate market is, which makes it difficult to secure a position after University. Something that not everyone is aware of however is the difference between a Graduate Job and a Graduate Scheme. The two are actually slightly different – and knowing the difference is important, the last thing you want to do is sign yourself up for something you don’t actually want! In this article, we provide a look at both.

 

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The graduate job market is highly competitive!

Essentially, a graduate scheme is a more structured position than a graduate job. A graduate scheme will last a set amount of time, while a graduate job will normally run indefinitely until you leave. Some graduate schemes will let you earn a qualification, while graduate jobs normally won’t. It is also important to mention that graduate schemes don’t guarantee an individual a job at the end of their scheme, though a graduate job obviously is a permanent position. We go into more detail below.

 

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Graduate Scheme

A graduate scheme is a structured position within a business, company or organisation. The schemes will exist throughout various sectors. Graduate schemes typically take on a large number of graduates each year. The schemes normally have a set length – lasting anywhere from 6 months to 5 years. Some graduate schemes will offer the candidate the chance to work towards a professional qualification – e.g. accountancy. In a graduate scheme, you will normally work in different departments throughout the organisation to ensure you get as much experience as possible.

 

However you won’t be guaranteed a permanent role in the business at the end of your scheme. But it is a very good experience in any case. The schemes are advertised early in the academic year, and operate a rigorous recruitment and selection process. The schemes typically start in August or September – around 2 months after the end of your University year. Understandably, there are short application windows. Overall, graduate schemes are highly-sought after and competitive, but offers a great chance to kick-start someone’s career. Finally, those on a scheme will tend to have a higher salary than someone on a graduate job.

 

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Graduate Job

From the outset, it is important to mention that a graduate job is no less prestigious than a graduate scheme. Normally, a graduate job is a set role within an organisation which is typically smaller. Graduate jobs normally appear later than graduate schemes, and can often be found at a short notice. There are nowhere near as many candidates, and is therefore less competitive. Normally, one or two interviews will suffice, as opposed to a long and drawn-out application process seen with graduate schemes.

 

A graduate job offers good experience, but it is unlikely that very big companies will offer them. They are typically lower paid, but they will normally offer a better chance of internal promotion. The role will tend to be more hands-on, with not too much training. If you aren’t sure on a long-term plan, a graduate job would be a good choice. You won’t be tied down to a set scheme, and you can practically come and go as you please. You can also take a few months off after University and then begin work in December or January, as opposed to having to wait for a set time each year.

 

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Either a graduate scheme or graduate job can prove enormously helpful

 


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So, subtle differences, but it is a good idea to be informed regarding both. Hopefully the descriptions above can help you decide whether a graduate scheme or job is right for you. Both are very useful, and offer an excellent chance of completing relevant industry experience. We’ve picked out a few helpful articles above – consider reading them, or consider browsing our entire advice section at the link below. Thanks for reading.

 

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10 Reasons To Study at UEA

The University of East Anglia (UEA) is an amazing institution. The University has many great things about it, and offers its students a great experience. In this article, we pick out ten reasons to study at the University!

 

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UEA is an amazing place to study!

1. Student Community

The University features an incredible 16,000 students – from a diverse range of backgrounds. Both Undergraduate and Postgraduate students are present on campus! Together, an incredible culture is created – you’ll be proud to be a student at UEA!

 

2. Nightlife

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If the nightlife is something you are interested in – then UEA is perfect for you! The legendary LCR hosts dozens of events and gigs, and has even hosted some of the most famous names in music – including a certain Ed Sheeran! Away from the campus, there are a slew of clubs, pubs and restaurants in the local area, making it a great place to both study and wind down!

 

3. The Campus

The campus at UEA is simply breathtaking! There are some amazing views, and everything you could possibly need is in one place. There are places to socialise, eat, relax or study. The beauty of the campus makes those early starts and the exam period slightly more bearable!

 

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4. The Beauty

East Anglia itself is a region that is renowned for its natural beauty! There are beaches, lakes and rivers – all of which look tranquil. Studying in such a nice area is great. The Norfolk Broads are reachable from campus, while Eaton Park is a favourite among students – with it offering ample green space to relax.

 

5. Sport

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UEA offers a great range of sporting activities. Some of the finest sporting facilities in the United Kingdom can be found at the purpose-built SportsPark. SportsPark hosts many sporting activities. There is also ample opportunity for people to try out different sports.

 

6. Teaching

Ultimately, you are at University to learn, and UEA consistently receives acclaim for teaching standards. The University certainly has a well-deserved reputation for teaching excellence. Having teaching staff that actually care about your subject will be of paramount importance to your development in your chosen field.

 

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7. Entertainment

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UEA offers many activities to enjoy. But when you want to branch out of campus, the local area features a lot. A range of shops, an IMAX cinema, two nationally recognised theatres and various galleries are all located in the close vicinity of campus.

 

8. Societies

There are over 60 clubs and societies, meaning there is so much to do. Whatever your interest, there should be a society to cover it! If not, why not make your own! Societies offer a great chance too to make friends – even better!

 

9. Graduate Prospects

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UEA is renowned for graduate prospects – which means you should be in good hands for whatever comes after University. Having a degree from such a well-regarded University will be very helpful for when it comes to applying for a graduate job!

 


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10. Friends

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University is normally a place to make friends – and hopefully some friends for life! In any case, the entire UEA community is like a family! Why not join the community and come and study at UEA?!

 

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People Reveal The Purchases That Caused Fights in Relationships

Money is so often the source of any argument in a relationship. Even the happiest of couples can come under strain when money rears its head. And yet money does help – such as when it is time to buy a gift – Birthday’s, Christmas, or just something to attempt to get back into your other half’s good books! But as some couples have found out to their detriment, buying a gift isn’t always a good thing. Now, some people have taken to the popular confessions app Whisper to confess some of the purchases that they have made that have caused fights in relationships – some to the extent where the relationship ended!

 

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Sometimes a purchase can lead to an inevitable fight. This was certainly the case when one man bought his ex some flowers – of course in the process annoying his current girlfriend. The value of purchases have also been a sticking point – with one girlfriend annoyed because her partner spent $40 on a pillow! Another suggested that a $20 Christmas tree purchase was ill advised – positing that the money ‘could’ve been used in better places’. However the man felt this was hypocritical – as she had spent $3,000 on cosmetic procedures!

 

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But annoyance over purchases isn’t just limited to girlfriends. One boyfriend got annoyed at his girlfriend because she purchased a Jon Snow poster – it appears he was jealous. Going back to Christmas, one boyfriend was insulted that his girlfriend got him a cleanser – mixed emotions on that one! One of the more extreme arguments emanated from a woman buying lingerie. Incredibly, the boyfriend accused her of being a stripper. This is a rather extreme reaction – one that probably wouldn’t be shared by many men, but still, to each their own.

 

The old chivalry argument reared its ugly head for one couple. As couples do, one duo went for dinner. Yet the boyfriend became annoyed as the girlfriend paid the full bill. He was annoyed to the extent of bearing a grudge for a few days. We want equality! The woman suggested she didn’t want nor need him to pay for everything, before accusing his boyfriend of still being in the 1950s! Unfortunately, we are unable to know what fate befell of this couple – perhaps the argument is roaring on to this day.

 

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Arguments sometimes resulted in break-ups. One girlfriend broke up with her boyfriend because he bought the wrong pizza – something which brings new meaning to the term ‘hangry’. Another hilarious argument broke out over a boyfriend purchasing a PlayStation4, but he managed to win back his girlfriend’s love by showering her with gifts – 2 dozen roses, a 6 pack of cupcakes and chocolate strawberries. Finally, a boyfriend left his girlfriend because she bought a dog. You can’t help but feel the girlfriend got the best deal out of that.

 


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You would be forgiven for wanting to lead a solitary and sheltered life upon reading this article. From Christmas trees to Christmas gifts to a poster, there has been no shortage of purchases causing fights. Sometimes, as the man who bought the PlayStation4 proved – the only way of getting a relationship back on track after an argument is countless gifts! But still, relationships can become all the more strong following an argument, or in extreme cases, said argument brings an end to the relationship. Why not just stay single?!

 

To see the entire article, with additional confessions – click here.

 

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Paranoid Personality Disorder

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Paranoid Personality Disorder is the name of a Personality Disorder that is characterised by paranoia and a long-standing suspiciousness and mistrust of others. The disorder is part of the ‘Odd and Eccentric’ cluster of personality disorders. People with Paranoid Personality Disorder are typically very sensitive to criticism, believe they are in danger and often withdraw socially. This article provides a general look at this disorder.

 

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Personality disorders can make life incredibly difficult to cope with    PC: Instagram @harryhelyar

 

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A person with Paranoid Personality Disorder will typically:

  • Find it difficult to confide in people, even their friends.
  • Struggle to trust other people – believing they will take advantage of them.
  • Observe others closely, looking for any sign of betrayal or an act of apparent hostility.
  • Read threats and dangers from everyday situations – which don’t appear to have any foundation or are irrational.
  • Be sensitive to criticism.
  • Hold grudges for considerable time.
  • Be suspicious of others.
  • Often self-reference.

 

PD_Causes

It isn’t entirely known what causes Paranoid Personality Disorder. It is believed a combination of both genetics and environmental factors play a part in the development of Paranoid Personality Disorder. The disorder can sometimes be inherited. It is unclear which particular genes are involved. Experiencing trauma, neglect or other maltreatment as a child appears to contribute to the disorder. Negative social experiences as a child can also contribute to the onset, with the individual perhaps believing that because one social group rejected them, that others will too.

 

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PD_Diag

If you suspect you have a personality disorder, it is generally advisable to see your GP. It is likely that they will refer you to a specialist. This specialist will perform a diagnosis – which will involve asking you several questions about your condition and the impact it has had on your life. Generally, the clinician will use guidelines from the American Psychiatric Association to confirm a diagnosis. There has been some controversy over its suitability for making a diagnosis. The guidelines state a diagnosis can be made if four of the following factors are present.

 

  1. The individual suspects, despite a lack of evidence, that others are exploiting, harming or deceiving them.
  2. Is preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or associates.
  3. Is reluctant to confide in others because of an unwarranted fear that the information given will be used maliciously against him or her.
  4. Reads hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events.
  5. Persistently bears grudges.
  6. Perceives attacks on his or her character or reputation that are not apparent to others and is quick to react angrily.
  7. Has recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding fidelity of spouse or sexual partner.

 

Source: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (2013). ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.

 

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It can be difficult to treat an individual with Paranoid Personality Disorder as they may harbour ill feelings or thoughts towards their therapist. In any case, individuals diagnosed with Paranoid Personality Disorder are normally treated with a form of Psychotherapy. The therapy, provided the individual is receptive, will be used with the intention of altering the thoughts and behaviours of the patient. The ultimate aim will be for them to no longer suffer from paranoia, and try to eradicate as many of the ill feelings described above. With the right clinician-patient trust, and a concerted effort from both parties, an improvement and ultimate recovery can take place. Patients who suffer from Anxiety or Depression as a result of the disorder can be given medication – normally an antidepressant or an antipsychotic at a low dose.

 

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Other Personality Disorders:

 

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Schizoid Personality Disorder

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Schizoid Personality Disorder is the name of a Personality Disorder that is characterised by a lack of interest in social relationships, a proclivity for solitary activities, secretiveness, emotional coldness and apathy. The disorder is part of the ‘Odd and Eccentric’ cluster of personality disorders. People with Schizoid Personality Disorder will also usually have a rich fantasy world. The disorder is separate to Schizophrenia, though the two do share some traits, however people with Schizoid personality disorder are in touch with reality, unlike those with Schizophrenia. This article provides a general look at this disorder.

 

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A person with Schizoid Personality Disorder will typically:

  • Be uninterested in forming friendships and/or relationships.
  • Prefer to be alone with their thoughts.
  • Appear aloof and emotionally cold.
  • Act indifferently to various setbacks.
  • Get very little pleasure in life.
  • Struggle to establish friendships – and find it difficult to ascertain accurate impressions of how well they get along with others.
  • Tend to prefer solitary activities wherever possible.
  • Struggle to express their feelings meaningfully.
  • Be secretive and rarely express themselves.
  • Feel as if they are ‘going through life in a dream’.

 

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It isn’t entirely known what causes Schizoid Personality Disorder. It is believed that genetic and environmental factors contribute to the onset of Schizoid Personality Disorder. An individual with a family history of Schizophrenia can be more at risk in developing the disorder. Trauma, neglect or experiencing bullying or other negative social experiences can cause the disorder. Generally, your personality forms throughout your childhood, so any negative experiences as a child can contribute.

 

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PD_Diag

If you suspect you have a personality disorder, it is generally advisable to see your GP. It is likely that they will refer you to a specialist. This specialist will perform a diagnosis – which will involve asking you several questions about your condition and the impact it has had on your life. Generally, the clinician will use guidelines from the American Psychiatric Association to confirm a diagnosis. There has been some controversy over its suitability for making a diagnosis. The guidelines state a diagnosis can be made if four or more of the following factors are present.

  1. The individual neither desires nor enjoys close relationships, often even to the extent of not wanting to be part of a family.
  2. Almost always chooses solitary activities.
  3. Has little, if any interest in having sexual experiences with another person.
  4. Takes pleasure in few, if any, activities.
  5. Lacks close friends or confidants aside from first-degree relatives.
  6. Appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of others.
  7. Appears to be emotionally cold and detached.

 

Source: “Schizoid Personality Disorder (pp. 652–655)”. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (2013). ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.

 

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As most people with Schizoid Personality Disorder have no problem with their difference, many don’t seek treatment. However, it is possible to seek help for a related issue which has arisen due to the traits of the disorder – like Depression. Usually therapy will be used, with medication sometimes used too. For therapy, a form of Psychotherapy is normally used. The therapy normally focuses on trying to improve social skills and social interactions, and attempts to combat self-esteem issues. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy has its limitations however, due to Schizoid patients rarely being able to identify automatic thoughts. Psychodynamic Psychotherapy is often used instead. In any case, attempts will be made to improve the quality of life for the patient. It can take considerable time for therapy to work, but it is possible to overcome Schizoid personality disorder. Sometimes, especially if the disorder has caused a depressive phase, medication can be prescribed. Medication can reduce anxiety, blunted emotions and low feelings. Atypical antipsychotics such as Risperidone and Olanzapine can be used in low doses. Some antidepressants like Bupropion can also help. Mood stabilisers such as Lamotrigine have also proven to be effective.

 

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Schizotypal Personality Disorder

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Schizotypal Personality Disorder is the name of a Personality Disorder that is characterised by extreme social anxiety, disturbed thoughts, paranoia, and sometimes elements of Psychosis and subsequent unconventional beliefs.The disorder is part of the ‘Odd and Eccentric’ cluster of personality disorders. People with Schizotypal Personality Disorder rarely engage with others, mainly because they think others have negative feelings towards them – causing them to avoid them. Individuals with this disorder often have paranormal beliefs. This article provides a general look at this disorder.

 

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PD_Symptoms

A person with Schizotypal Personality Disorder will typically:

  • Struggle to make friends, especially close friendships.
  • Exhibit anxiousness in social situations.
  • Disturbed thoughts.
  • Feel paranoid – including feeling that other’s don’t like them.
  • Use unusual phrases or words in everyday conversations.
  • Considered to be ‘odd’ by others.
  • Behave in ways that could be perceived as eccentric – including how they dress.
  • Have paranormal beliefs, or believe they have the ability to read minds or a ‘sixth sense.
  • Ruminate excessively.
  • Sometimes experience some of the symptoms of Schizophrenia.

 

PD_Causes

Schizotypal personality disorder is believed to be on the ‘Schizophrenic Spectrum’ – meaning it is related to Schizophrenia. This does mean an individual with a family history of Schizophrenia is likelier to develop this personality disorder. While genetics play a part, social and environmental factors also appear to play a part. Some studies suggest parenting styles, neglect, trauma and family dysfunction can all contribute to greater risk in developing the disorder. Some children will struggle to process and respond to social cues when exposed to trauma or neglect. This disorder is generally poorly researched, due to its similarity with the more-researched Schizophrenia.

 

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PD_Diag

If you suspect you have a personality disorder, it is generally advisable to see your GP. This personality disorder often causes Depression. It is likely that your GP will refer you to a specialist. This specialist will perform a diagnosis – which will involve asking you several questions about your condition and the impact it has had on your life. Generally, the clinician will use guidelines from the American Psychiatric Association to confirm a diagnosis. There has been some controversy over its suitability for making a diagnosis. The guidelines define the disorder as ‘a pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behaviour, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts’. A diagnosis can generally be made if five of the following factors are present.

 

  1. Suffering from ideas of reference – when an individual believes innocuous events have strong meaning to them – and is related to their own destiny. An example would be that a headline in a newspaper is secretly communicating something to them.
  2. Strange beliefs such as thinking they have magical powers.
  3. Abnormal perceptual experiences.
  4. Strange thinking and speech.
  5. Paranoia.
  6. Inappropriate or constricted affect – such as a lack of emotions.
  7. Strange behaviour or appearance.
  8. Lack of close friends.
  9. Excessive social anxiety.

 

Source: “Schizotypal Personality Disorder (pp. 655–659)”. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (2013). ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.

 

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Individuals with Schizotypal Personality Disorder usually fall into a state of Depression or Anxiety – and then seek treatment. The disorder is normally treated with a combination of therapy and medication. The therapy is normally a form of Psychotherapy. The therapy will attempt to restructure the thoughts and feelings of a patient, and attempt to lessen their anxiety. The disorder is difficult to overcome, but with the right clinician-patient trust and a concerted effort from both parties, an improvement can take place. However getting the patient to accept therapy can be difficult. Sometimes medication can be used. For patients who suffer from paranoia and unusual beliefs, a low dose of an antipsychotic can be used. For patients who suffer from obsessive-compulsive behaviours as part of the disorder, an antidepressant is normally used.

 

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Antisocial Personality Disorder

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Antisocial Personality Disorder is the name of a Personality Disorder that is characterised by a long term pattern of disregard of others, a history of crime, impulsive and aggressive behaviour. The disorder is part of the ‘Dramatic, Emotional and Erratic’ cluster of personality disorders. Antisocial personality disorder is often associated with psychopathy and sociopathy – with an overlap exhibited. This article provides a general look at this disorder.

 

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People with this disorder typically have several run-ins with law enforcement

 

PD_Symptoms

A person with Antisocial Personality Disorder will typically:

  • Have a complete disregard for morals and social norms.
  • Not respect the rights and feelings of others.
  • Happily exploit others for their own gain.
  • Be arrogant.
  • Lack remorse for harmful actions.
  • Be irresponsible.
  • Exhibit impulsive and reckless behaviour.
  • They will often suffer from substance abuse or addiction.
  • Have a criminal record.
  • Have problems in making friends.
  • Behave in a manner which offends or is unpleasant for others.
  • Get bored easily.
  • Behave aggressively.
  • Have been diagnosed with Conduct Disorder as a youth.

 

PD_Causes

It is not entirely known what causes Antisocial personality disorder. It is believed a combination of genetic and environmental factors contribute to its onset. Individuals who have a parent who has the disorder or is an addict are more at risk of developing the disorder. Children can easily act in the same way an adult does – and therefore witnessing antisocial behaviour can be damaging. Certain genes have been shown to be involved with the disorder. Neglect or other maltreatment during childhood can also lead to its onset. Traumatic events can also contribute to the disorder. Some chemicals in the brain can become unbalanced by such events, which again can cause the disorder. Cruelty to animals during childhood is often a sign of the development of the disorder. More males are diagnosed than females.

 

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PD_Diag

If you suspect you have a personality disorder, it is generally advisable to see your GP. It is likely that they will refer you to a specialist. This specialist will perform a diagnosis – which will involve asking you several questions about your condition and the impact it has had on your life. Generally, the clinician will use guidelines from the American Psychiatric Association to confirm a diagnosis. There has been some controversy over its suitability for making a diagnosis. The guidelines state a diagnosis can be made if:

 

  • The individual has a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others – occurring since the age of 15 years, is at least 18, had conduct disorder as a teenager and has not got Schizophrenia. AND at least three of the following:

 

  1. The individual fails to conform to social norms in terms of abiding by the law as opposed to acting in a way that are grounds for arrest.
  2. They frequently deceive others. This is often achieved by lying, using aliases or conning others.
  3. Exhibit impulsivity – and not planning ahead.
  4. Are irritable and very aggressive – indicated by involvement in physical fights or assaults.
  5. Have a reckless disregard for the safety of others or their self.
  6. Are irresponsible consistently – such as failing to maintain a job or honour financial obligations.
  7. Has a lack of remorse, including being indifferent to hurting or mistreating someone.

 

Source: American Psychiatric Association (2000). “Diagnostic criteria for 301.7 Antisocial Personality Disorder”. BehaveNet. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Retrieved 8 July 2013.

 

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Antisocial Personality Disorder is one of the most difficult personality disorders to treat. As individuals with this disorder don’t tend to have remorse, it can make it difficult for the individual to see the consequences to others of their antisocial actions. Even in cases where the individual appears to be committed to therapy, they can sometimes be manipulating clinicians and family into believing this. Many people with this disorder are imprisoned. Therefore, the justice system is responsible for treatment for many people – as part of an individual’s imprisonment. However, success rates are low – especially due to the aggressive and antisocial attitude of an individual with the disorder. There is no medication licensed to treat this disorder. However, traits such as aggressiveness and impulsiveness can be managed – usually by an antipsychoticantidepressant or mood stabiliser.

 

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